The Glad Game > 2008年10月24日のアーカイブ

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スピーキング対策 Organ donationその2

Organ donation system in Japan.

Almost a decade has passed since the Organ Transplant Law went into effect in October 1997 in our country. The 76th organ transplant from a brain death patient was transformed this month. More than 12,000 patients are waiting for a transplant in Japan, but only 208 people received organs this year. There are 75 cases of cadeveric donation, and 12 brain death donations this year. There is a gap between supply and demand in organ transplantation. I read an article that we should have opt-out system to increase the number of available organs. I don’t think this opt-out system is has caught in on quickly in our country.

Countries which have opt-out system such as Spain, France, Italy tend to have high cadaveric transplantation rate. However, there is an exception. Greece has fewer donor rates per head of population compared to the some countries which don’t take opt-out system. The US has a high organ donor rate of 26.6 per million. Cadeveric donation rate in Greece is less than quarter of America. Some countries such as America, Ireland have high donation rate in spite of having an opt-in system. This partly reflects the objection rate among the donor’s relatives, or nationality. The refusal rate of relatives is different from country to country. In Portugal, the refusal rate is only 6%, whereas the rate is 40% in UK.

Japanese people fear to let the surgeons to remove their beloved family member’s organs. The fear overwhelmed the benefit of organ donation. Before changing the system, we have to change the old beliefs that we have to take our whole body to heaven. That will need some help from various fields such as religion, politics, and education.

If we take the opt-out system, we are all assumed to be a potential donor unless we had opted out of the scheme. It would take away the individual’s fundamental right to decide. I think the donation of the organs should remain a gift for the society. We can be opted out of the system if we choose, but I think it is a better idea if we can willingly offer our organs after death.

I am sorry to hear that a lot of Japanese people passed away while they had been waiting for the transplant. Some people go to America for the transplant. In America, nearly 30,000 organ transplants are carried out per year. However, many American people are waiting for the transplant operation. It is difficult for Japanese people to go to America to have transplantation, since it costs tremendous amount of money and it will endanger patients’ lives to take airplanes. To help these people, we have to increase the number of people who have donor cards by educational campaign, or by allocating more organ transplant coordinator in every hospital. I think the development of artificial organs or the embryonic-stem-cell technology might help to solve the problem in the future.

参考記事はThe Economistのコチラ


スピーキング対策 Organ donationその1

英検1級2次対策の手始めに、LingQでHelenさんのディスカッションを受けてきました。ちょうど国内76例目の脳死移植があったのと、先週号のThe Economistで臓器移植のtopicがあったので、先生とイギリスと日本での臓器移植事情についてお話しました。イギリスでは年間3000例くらいの臓器移植(生体間も含めて)あるようです。日本と同じようにドナーとして意思表示をして家族が同意をする制度なのですが、「自分が死んだら、体は一番近い親族である夫のpropertyになる」という先生の発言にビックリしました。


イランは世界で唯一臓器提供に対して公式に金銭的保障が行われている国であり、世界一生体移植のドナー数の割合(100万人につき23人)が多い国です。イランではこの制度の制定以来11年で腎移植患者の待機がいなくなったそうです。保障方法は二つ。政府からの1200ドルと一年間の無料健康保険。またはレシピエントから2300~4500ドルを受け取るか。(原則としてイラン人以外は制度を利用できないそうです)。  英検対策のために始めたキーワード集めですが、どのトピックも奥が深くてただの試験対策でサラッと終わらせてしまうのはもったいないです。今は切羽詰っているので浅く広くトピックをカバーしようと思ってますけど、落ち着いたら一つ一つの話題をじっくりおさらいしてみようと思います。

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